Oscar Micheaux was the first African American to make a feature film (the Homesteader, 1919), as well as a sound film (the Exile, 1931). In 1919, he made Within Our Gates, a reaction to DW Griffith’s classic-yet-abhorrent Birth of a Nation (1915). Micheux depicted scenes of white cruelty and intentionally reversed or directly addressed certain scenes from Griffith’s film. During his years as a filmmaker, he directed 42 films and was a pioneer of the Race Film movement.